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Archive for for May, 2016

Federal Crowdfunding–Finally Here–Goes into Effect on May 16, 2016 (Part IV)

May 31, 2016

FINRA’s Funding Portal Rules.

The federal crowdfunding final rules require that each intermediary in a crowdfunding transaction be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) either as a broker-dealer or a funding portal and be a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), which is currently the only registered national securities association. For details of the final rules, including registration and disclosure requirements for intermediaries, please see our previous series “Is It Time To Do Crowdfunding To Raise Money?: SEC Releases Federal Crowdfunding Final Rules.” FINRA has finalized its funding portal rules and the SEC approved them on January 29, 2016, making them effective as of that date.Read the rest

Charging Orders: Is a Creditor of an LLC Member Necessarily a Creditor of the LLC? (Part II)

May 31, 2016

Merrill Ranch Properties, LLC v. Austell[1] involved a bank loan to an LLC, secured by certain property in Arizona and guaranteed by an affiliated individual and eight trust entities he controlled.  At some point, the loan was declared in default and the bank filed a lawsuit in Arizona against the borrower and the guarantors to recover the balance of the loan.  The lawsuit eventually settled.  Subsequently, however, the plaintiff discovered that shortly after the loan was declared in default, three LLCs with corporate relationships to the guarantor transferred certain assets to various newly-created entities that were, in turn, directly or indirectly owned by trusts controlled by the guarantor.  … Read the rest

Can a Partner Be Held Liable for a Partnership Debt in Texas? (Part II)

May 26, 2016

In American Star Energy and Minerals Corporation v. Stowers,[1] four partners formed a general partnership called S&J Investments (“S&J”) to invest in oil and gas properties.  S&J contracted with  American Star Energy and Minerals Corporation (“American”) to operate these properties.  Subsequently, American sued S&J for breach of contract, which resulted in a final judgment in the amount of $227,884.46 against S&J in 2008.  It turned out that S&J was undercapitalized and unable to satisfy the judgment debt, so in 2010, American brought another action seeking a judgment against the partners individually. … Read the rest

Federal Crowdfunding–Finally Here–Goes into Effect on May 16, 2016 (Part III)

May 24, 2016

SEC: A Small Business Compliance Guide on Registration of Funding Portals.

On February 29, 2016, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued “A Small Entity Compliance Guide: Registration of Funding Portals.” [1] The full text of the investor bulletin is available here. One of the requirements for crowdfunding under JOBS Act is that it be done through an intermediary; no issuer can do crowdfunding directly without using one. [2] For details of the final rules, including registration and disclosure requirements for intermediaries, please see our previous series “Is It Time To Do Crowdfunding To Raise Money?: SEC Releases Federal Crowdfunding Final Rules.” The compliance guide focuses only on the registration requirements.Read the rest

Charging Orders: Is a Creditor of an LLC Member Necessarily a Creditor of the LLC? (Part I)

May 24, 2016

In our previous blog series on Comparison of LLC Statutes, we briefly touched on the concept of LLC charging order.  In many states, including Delaware, New York, and Texas, a creditor with a judgment against an LLC member can apply for a charging order to satisfy the judgment.  That way, the creditor gets the right to receive distributions from the LLC to which the debtor/member would otherwise have been entitled.  A charging order may or may not be the exclusive remedy by which a creditor may satisfy a judgment out of the debtor’s LLC interest, depending on the jurisdiction, and this can make a big difference if the LLC does not make any distributions.… Read the rest

Can a Partner Be Held Liable for a Partnership Debt in Texas? (Part I)

May 19, 2016

In our previous blog series on general partnership, we talked about what general partnership is and why it is important for business owners to know about it.  We wrote that, despite the advent of limited liability companies (LLCs), business owners frequently form a general partnership, oftentimes without even realizing it.  Generally speaking, partners in a general partnership are jointly and severally liable, and each partner is personally and individually liable for the entire amount of all partnership obligations.  For example, if your partnership owes an amount to a supplier, you, along with the other individual partner(s), would be personally liable if the partnership fails to pay the supplier– whether you intended to be a partner or whether you knew you were exposed to such liability.… Read the rest

Federal Crowdfunding–Finally Here–Goes into Effect on May 16, 2016 (Part II)

May 17, 2016

SEC Investor Bulletin: Crowdfunding for Investors.

Crowdfunding under federal law became legal on May 16, 2016, but efforts to prep potential investors and intermediaries have been in the works for much longer. On February 16, 2016, the Office of Investor Education and Advocacy of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued “Investor Bulletin: Crowdfunding for Investors” [1] to educate investors about what it means to make a crowdfunding investment, what to keep in mind, and how. The full text of the investor bulletin is available here.Read the rest

Federal Crowdfunding Goes into Effect on May 16, 2016

May 10, 2016

It is official—federal crowdfunding finally goes into effect on May 16, 2016.

Title III of the JOBS Act, also referred to as the “CROWDFUND Act (Capital Raising Online While Deterring Fraud and Unethical Non-Disclosure Act of 2012),” exempts up to $1 million crowdfunded securities from the federal registration requirement when the transaction is conducted through an intermediary that is either a broker or a funding portal.[1] For a detailed analysis of the federal law and related topics, please see our previous posts “Crowdfunding: Is It Right for My Business,” “Is It Time To Do Crowdfunding To Raise Money?: SEC Releases Federal Crowdfunding Final Rules,” and “An Easy Way for Texas Companies To Raise Money?Read the rest

All postings are intended to be planning tools to familiarize readers with some of the high-level issues discussed therein. No posting is intended to be a comprehensive discussion and additional details should be discussed with your transaction planners including attorneys, accountants, consultants, bankers and other business planners who can provide advice for your circumstances. This article should not be treated as legal advice to any person or entity.