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Tagged Posts: certificate of formation’

When a Corporation Fails To Exist (Legally) (Part IV)

October 27, 2016

In Hill v. County Concrete Co., Inc., Hill and Newman hired an attorney to form a construction services corporation to be known as “C&M Builders, Inc.” (C&M).[1]  The attorney advised Hill and Newman that the corporate name was available and that they could proceed with their business preparations, upon which Hill and Newman ordered checks, painted trucks, and opened a bank account, all imprinted with, or in the name of, C&M.  But for whatever reason, the attorney did not attempt to file the Articles of Incorporation until the end of February 1989, more than 3 months later, and when he did, the corporate name C&M was no longer available. … Read the rest

When a Corporation Fails To Exist (Legally) (Part III)

October 20, 2016

Corporation by Estoppel

In Cranson v. I.B.M. Corp., Cranson decided to invest in a corporation that was soon to be formed.[1] Upon being advised by the attorney that the corporation had been formed, Cranson received a stock certificate for his shares and was shown the corporate seal and minute book.  The company started conducting business, through corporate bank accounts, with auditors maintaining corporate books and records, and under a lease for the office space entered into by the corporation. … Read the rest

When a Corporation Fails To Exist (Legally) (Part II)

October 13, 2016

De Facto Corporation

Cantor v. Sunshine Greenery, Inc., a 1979 case out of New Jersey, is one of the best known cases on the doctrine of de facto corporation.[1]  In that case, Cantor was the landlord and Sunshine Greenery the tenant.  On December 16, 1974, Cantor prepared the lease naming Sunshine Greenery as the tenant, which was signed by Brunetti as president of Sunshine Greenery.  Cantor knew that Brunetti was starting a new corporation but did not request a personal guarantee from Brunetti. … Read the rest

When a Corporation Fails To Exist (Legally) (Part I)

October 6, 2016

We advise and write frequently on personal liability of business owners.  Certain entity forms, such as corporation and limited liability company (LLC), generally offer protection from personal liability for business owners.  Although we discussed in our previous blog series “LLC Law Update: Piercing the Corporate Veil” situations where courts “pierce the corporate (or LLC) veil” to hold business owners liable for business debts, veil piercing is more of an exception than the norm for properly formed and operated entities. … Read the rest

Federal Crowdfunding Goes into Effect on May 16, 2016 (Part VI)

June 14, 2016

Fix Crowdfunding Act.  

We have been blogging about federal crowdfunding in this blog series this past month or so. As you know, Title III of the JOBS Act, also referred to as the “CROWDFUND Act (Capital Raising Online While Deterring Fraud and Unethical Non-Disclosure Act of 2012),” exempts up to $1 million crowdfunded securities from the federal registration requirement when the transaction is conducted in certain ways.[1] For a detailed analysis of the final rules, please see our previous blog series “Is It Time To Do Crowdfunding To Raise Money?: SEC Releases Federal Crowdfunding Final Rules.” Even before the final rules went into effect, however, efforts to amend Title III had been underway.… Read the rest

Federal Crowdfunding Goes into Effect on May 16, 2016 (Part V)

June 7, 2016

SEC Small Entity Compliance Guide and Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations for Issuers.

On May 13, 2016, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) released two guidance documents on crowdfunding for issuers: “Regulation Crowdfunding: A Small Entity Compliance Guide for Issuers” and “Regulation Crowdfunding: Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations (C&DIs).” [1]  For details of the final rules, including requirements for issuers, please see our previous blog series “Is It Time To Do Crowdfunding To Raise Money?: SEC Releases Federal Crowdfunding Final Rules.” The compliance guide and C&DIs explain the final rules in plain English, some of which we highlight below.… Read the rest

Federal Crowdfunding–Finally Here–Goes into Effect on May 16, 2016 (Part IV)

May 31, 2016

FINRA’s Funding Portal Rules.

The federal crowdfunding final rules require that each intermediary in a crowdfunding transaction be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) either as a broker-dealer or a funding portal and be a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), which is currently the only registered national securities association. For details of the final rules, including registration and disclosure requirements for intermediaries, please see our previous series “Is It Time To Do Crowdfunding To Raise Money?: SEC Releases Federal Crowdfunding Final Rules.” FINRA has finalized its funding portal rules and the SEC approved them on January 29, 2016, making them effective as of that date.Read the rest

Federal Crowdfunding–Finally Here–Goes into Effect on May 16, 2016 (Part III)

May 24, 2016

SEC: A Small Business Compliance Guide on Registration of Funding Portals.

On February 29, 2016, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued “A Small Entity Compliance Guide: Registration of Funding Portals.” [1] The full text of the investor bulletin is available here. One of the requirements for crowdfunding under JOBS Act is that it be done through an intermediary; no issuer can do crowdfunding directly without using one. [2] For details of the final rules, including registration and disclosure requirements for intermediaries, please see our previous series “Is It Time To Do Crowdfunding To Raise Money?: SEC Releases Federal Crowdfunding Final Rules.” The compliance guide focuses only on the registration requirements.Read the rest

All postings are intended to be planning tools to familiarize readers with some of the high-level issues discussed therein. No posting is intended to be a comprehensive discussion and additional details should be discussed with your transaction planners including attorneys, accountants, consultants, bankers and other business planners who can provide advice for your circumstances. This article should not be treated as legal advice to any person or entity.